By Nancy Robinson Masters
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She lives 13,000 miles from Antarctica in the Elmdale Community near Abilene, Texas, with her husband, veteran aviator Bill Masters. They enjoy flying over West Texas to see where extinct volcanoes erupted. com.
Ann Arbor, MI: Cherry Lake Press, 2010. com/games/build-play/volcano-explorer Visit this site to learn about why volcanoes erupt, where they’re most common, and even try creating your own volcano! htm Check out this site for information, videos, and fun activities relating to Hawaii’s volcanoes. 21st ceNtuRy skills libRaRy R e a l w o R l d M at h : N at u R a l d i s a s t e R s VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS INDEx active volcanoes, 5, 21, 25 ash, 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, 18 calderas, 13 crust, 4, 5, 9 damage, 11, 16, 18, 24–25 deaths, 9, 11, 24 dormant volcanoes, 5 earthquakes, 6, 15 extinct volcanoes, 5, 21 Eyjafjallajökul volcano, 14–16, 18, 25 farming, 8, 9, 26 frequency, 12, 15 gases, 5, 6, 8, 15 geothermal heat, 25–26 Grímsvötn volcano, 12, 18, 25 nonexplosive volcanoes, 11, 12 Hawaiian Islands, 5, 21 hot spots, 5, 21 red zone, 11 Io (moon), 21, 22 Krakatau, 11, 12, 13 lava, 5, 6, 9, 16, 22 magma, 5, 11, 15 mantle, 4–5, 9, 11 Mount St.
3, or about 4 times The most recent year it erupted is 1955. It costs $510,000 for one volcanologist to work for one year. 02 million, or $1,020,000, for two volcanologists $1,020,000 2 volcanologists $510,000 for one volcanologist 21st ceNtuRy skills libRaRy R e a l w o R l d M at h : N at u R a l d i s a s t e R s VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS gLOSSARY active (AK-tiv) referring to a volcano that has had at least one eruption during the past 10,000 years caldera (kal-DEHR-uh) a volcanic crater, formed by the collapse of the volcano’s top core (KORE) the intensely hot, most inner part of the earth crust (KRUHST) the top layer of the earth, made up mostly of rock dormant (DOR-muhnt) referring to a volcano that has not erupted for some time, but it is expected to erupt again extinct (ek-STINGKT) referring to a volcano that is not expected to erupt again geothermal (jee-oh-THUR-muhl) relating to the internal heat of the earth hot spots (HOT SPOTS) weak spots in a tectonic plate, usually areas of constant volcanic activity lava (LAH-vuh) the hot, melted rock that pours out of a volcano when it erupts magma (MAG-muh) melted rock found beneath the earth’s surface mantle (MAN-tuhl) the part of the earth between the crust and the core seamounts (SEE-mounts) nonexplosive underwater volcanoes tectonic plates (tek-TON-ik PLATES) huge, thick landmasses that make up the earth’s surface volcanologists (vahl-kuh-nol-uh-jists) scientists who study volcanoes fOR MORE INfORMATION BOOKS Fradin, Judith Bloom, and Dennis B.