By Jay Joseph
The difficulty with dual stories questions well known genetic reasons of human behavioral alterations established upon the present physique of dual study. Psychologist Jay Joseph outlines the fallacies of dual experiences within the context of the continuing decades-long failure to find genes for human behavioral adjustments, together with IQ, character, and the most important psychiatric issues. This quantity significantly examines dual examine, with a different emphasis on reared-apart dual reviews, and contains new and up-to-date views, analyses, arguments, and proof.
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Extra resources for The Trouble with Twin Studies: A Reassessment of Twin Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences
2ŠŠBy writing that twin studies were used in support of racial discrimination, and were subject to “previous political distortions,” Parisi implied only that twin studies were misused by politicians, and he failed to mention the complicity of many twin researchers in the eugenic and racial hygienic policies in the United States, Germany, and elsewhere (Joseph, 2004; Joseph & Wetzel, 2013; Lifton, 1986; Weiss, 2010). 2 STUDIES OF REARED-APART TWINS Origins, Publications, and Scandal When we come to the separated [twin] cases, a somewhat different situation exists.
1. Molecular Genetic Research The final and most recent major method is molecular genetic research, where researchers search for causative genetic variants which they believe must exist on the basis of the results from previous twin and adoption studies. This area of research will be examined in Chapters 8–10. 1ŠŠFour Types of Pairs Studied in Twin Research Reared Together Reared Apart Monozygotic (MZ, identical) MZT MZA Dizygotic (DZ, fraternal) DZT DZA MZT = Monozygotic twin pairs reared together; MZA = monozygotic twin pairs reared apart; DZT = dizygotic twin pairs reared together; DZA = dizygotic twin pairs reared apart.
Clearly, agency policies of “fitting the home to the child” are a far cry from the random placement of adoptees into a wide range of adoptive homes. In psychiatry, adoption studies are sometimes seen as being less vulnerable to the effects of environmental confounds than are twin studies. , 1994; Rosenthal, Wender, Kety, Welner, & Schulsinger, 1971). These studies are widely cited as having definitively established schizophrenia as a genetic disorder. However, in addition to the general adoption study problems mentioned above, psychiatric adoption studies contain a set of problem areas which include non-blinded diagnoses in some studies, inadequate and inconsistent definitions of the disorder in question, the questionable use of broader “spectrum disorder” diagnoses, inconsistencies in the way adoptee and relative group diagnoses were counted and assessed, the failure to find statistically significant results in some cases, investigator bias in favor of genetic interpretations, the failure to study adoptees’ rearing environments, and other problems (critical analyses of psychiatric adoption research can be found in Boyle, 2002b; Cassou, Schiff, & Stewart, 1980; Jackson, 2003; Joseph, 2004, 2006, 2010a, 2013b; Lewontin, Rose, & Kamin, 1984; Lidz, 1976; Lidz & Blatt, 1983; Lidz, Blatt, & Cook, 1981; McMahon, 1980; Pam, 1995).