By Sarah Hampson
This moment variation, considerably revised, offers an advent to present concept and learn within the psychology of character and examines this paintings from the point of view of contructivism.
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Additional info for The Construction of Personality : An Introduction (Introductions to Modern Psychology)
3 Multi-trait theories Introduction Multi-trait theories are designed to describe the entire personality. Their purpose is to locate the constellation of traits that make up the structure of personality and to devise appropriate measures of each of these traits. This approach assumes that we all share the same personality structure, although people differ from each other because we are each characterised by our own particular combination of trait scores. Hence the multi-trait approach captures both the underlying similarity between human beings and the surface differences; or, to use Allport’s terminology, it is able to make both nomothetic and idiographic statements about personality (Allport, 1937).
Psychoticism is claimed to measure an aspect of personality not subsumed by the extraversion and neuroticism dimensions, and may be summarised as the individual’s predisposition to psychotic breakdown. J. G. Eysenck, 1975). G. J. Eysenck, 1968). High scorers on this dimension have not necessarily experienced a psychotic breakdown. Eysenck considers both neurotic and psychotic disorders to be the result of predisposing personality characteristics and precipitating environmental events. Multi-trait theories 51 However, studies of criterion groups indicate that criminals and schizophrenics have high psychoticism scores.
Witkin has argued that development involves increasing psychological differentiation, which results in increasing field independence. The alternative argument is that development involves the acquisition of knowledge about good strategies, and these may be either fieldindependent or -dependent. The alternative interpretation does not succeed in making a clear distinction between FD-I and intelligence since the ability to acquire and apply knowledge about good strategies is presumably an aspect of what is meant by intelligence.