By Mark R. Leary, Rowland S. Miller
A colleague lately stated a talk she had had with a bunch of graduate scholars. For purposes that she can't bear in mind, the dialogue had grew to become to the subject of "old-fashioned" rules in psychology-perspectives and ideology that had as soon as loved common help yet which are now considered as old fashioned curiosities. the scholars racked their brains to outdo one ofthe ancient minutiae of psychology: Le Bon's one other with their wisdom fascination with the "group mind," Mesmer's conception of animal magnetism, the short-lived approval for "moral therapy," Descartes' trust that erec tions are maintained through air from the lungs, etc. while it got here his tum to give a contribution to the dialogue, one scholar mentioned an enigmatic magazine he had obvious within the library stacks: the magazine of irregular and Social Psychology. He suggestion that the inclusion of irregular and social psychology in the covers of a unmarried magazine appeared a wierd mixture, and he questioned aloud what kind of ancient quirk had led psychologists of an prior iteration to treat those fields as by some means comparable. Our colleague then requested her scholars in the event that they had any rules approximately how such a wierd mix had came across its manner right into a unmarried journal.
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Additional info for Social Psychology and Dysfunctional Behavior: Origins, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Insomniacs, it was argued, exacerbated their sleeplessness by attributing it to internal causes and making it a threatening, anxiety-arousing event. If they could be supplied a plausible cause for their restlessness that did not Adaptive Attributions 27 create further anxiety, their worry and arousal would be reduced, and they would be more likely to fall asleep. Accordingly, Storms and Nisbett assigned insomniacs to one of three conditions. One group was given a placebo pill that, they were told, would arouse them.
In this procedure, anxious subjects engage in "purposefully biased" 10-minute interactions with each of six different opposite-sex peers. These "interaction assistants" need not know the purpose behind these meetings, and are merely instructed to carryon pleasant conversation (without being negative, discussing sex, or making any dates). Whether or not the subjects think they are getting "therapy" and whether their expectations are positive or negative, the procedure seems to be quite beneficial, substantially reducing the subjects' anxiety.
Further, depressed students made more external and unstable attributions for positive outcomes than did less depressed students. Consistent with the theory, then, certain patterns of attributions were associated with higher levels of depression. Subsequent research has generally supported the hypothesized link between attributional style and depression using a variety of populations, including children (Seligman & Peterson, in press), depressed patients in a Veterans Administration hospital (Raps, Peterson, Reinhard, Abramson, & Seligman, 1982), lower-class women (Navarra, 1981, cited in Peterson & Seligman, 1984), and, of course, college students (Metalsky, Abramson, Seligman, Semmel, & Peterson, 1982; Peterson, Schwartz, & Seligman, 1981).