By Drew Westen
The relation among person and collective approaches is vital to the social sciences, but tricky to conceptualize as a result necessity of crossing disciplinary obstacles. the result's that researchers in numerous disciplines build their very own implicit, and infrequently unsatisfactory, versions of both person or collective phenomena, which in flip impression their theoretical and empirical paintings. during this publication, Drew Westen makes an attempt to pass those limitations, offering an interdisciplinary method of character, to tradition, and to the relation among the 2. half I of the e-book units forth a version of character that integrates psychodynamic research with an knowing of cognitively mediated conditioning and social studying. partly II, Westen deals a view of tradition that blends symbolic and materialist modes of discourse, analyzing the function of either beliefs and 'material' wishes in motivating symbolic in addition to concrete social structural strategies. partly III, he combines those versions of character and tradition via an exam of cultural evolution and stasis, id and ancient swap, and the effect of technological improvement on character. through the publication, Westen presents experiences of the state-of-the-art in numerous fields, together with character thought, ethical improvement, ego improvement, and tradition conception. He additionally addresses and recasts crucial concerns in psychology, sociology, anthropology, and social idea, resembling the relatives among emotion and cognition; social studying and psychodynamics; beliefs and fabric forces; and person and collective motion. His publication will entice scholars and students in all of the social sciences, in addition to to any reader enthusiastic about knowing the relation among participants and the area during which they reside.
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Additional resources for Self and Society: Narcissism, Collectivism, and the Development of Morals
My aim in 22 Emotion: A Missing Link this chapter is to show how a theory of affect can bridge crucial aspects of the two psychologies and allow one to reinterpret and bring together a wide range of observed phenomena. The nature and functions of affect1 have never been clearly delineated in either psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral psychology. With Skinner, the behaviorists scrupulously followed the methodological assumptions inherited from British empiricism which mandated a focus strictly on the observable.
In approach-avoidance conflicts, the animal has two options, approach and avoidance. " For example, in Milgram's famous obedience experiments, in which subjects believed they were delivering severe shocks to someone in another room, one of the subjects captured on film found himself torn between the desire to obey and the anxiety and fear provoked by hurting another person. His response was a compromise which reconciled the conflicting affects: he shocked the person (obedience) while shaking his head (as if to say, "No, I am not doing this").
The idea that people can be motivated by cognition is rampant in psychology and stems from the philosophical view of the "rational man" who acts according to the mandates of reason. 1 1 This is not to say that something like "intrinsic motivation" (Hunt, 1965) may not motivate the acquisition of knowledge, or that one cannot speak of a primarily "conflict-free ego sphere" (Hartmann, 1939). Perhaps the main anomaly that turned psychologists from radical behaviorism toward more cognitive approaches is evidence of learning without reinforcement.