By David Seddon
This POLITICAL AND monetary DICTIONARY OF AFRICA considers the total of the conlinenl. it's normal lo make a contrast among North Africa and Africa south of the Sahara, or sub-Saharan Africa, since economically, politically and culturally, the nations and peoples of North Africa are extra heavily relating to and concerned with these of the center East than these of sub-Saharan Africa. yet North Africa has constantly been associated with the remainder of Africa, by way of the trans-Saharan alternate and through cultural, social and political relationships of varied types. Even at the present time, whilst kingdom borders are usually higher outlined, there are significant parts of the Saharan sector throughout which stream humans, cash and commodities in a wide selection of other transactions, either felony and unlawful, linking the north with the remainder of Africa. additionally, there were many projects over the past few a long time to create pan-African associations, so much of which contain the governments and states of North Africa in addition to these of sub-Saharan African, together with the association of African harmony and its successor the African Union. some of the most fresh projects for the improvement of the African continent, the recent Partnership for Africa's improvement (NEPAD), comprises nations of north and south, east and west, around the continent.
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Owned by Egypt, Libya, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar and private Arab shareholders. Offshore bank which aims to promote trade and investment in shareholders’ countries and other Arab states. Arab League (League of Arab States) The League of Arab States was created on 22 March 1945, in Alexandria, Egypt. Its founding members were Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan and A political and economic dictionary of Africa 43 Yemen (North). As other Arab states gained independence, the League was enlarged and now numbers 22 members.
Bauxite is the principal aluminium ore although there are several other sources of alumina that are currently not economic to process. Of all bauxite mined, roughly 85% is converted to alumina for the production of aluminium. Total world output of aluminium in 2000 was around 24m. 2m. tons. Guinea, the leading African producer, possesses more than onequarter of the world’s known bauxite reserves and is the world’s leading exporter, ranking second only to Australia in terms of ore production. Alumina, aluminium and bauxite account for almost 60% of Guinea’s external revenue.
UNITA retook many areas originally handed over to state administration and heavy clashes took place. Against this background, the UN Secretary-General recommended the withdrawal of the military elements of MONUA. The UN Security Council accepted this recommendation. At the end of 1998 the MPLA, at its party congress, changed its strategy and decided to achieve ‘peace through war’. A full-scale return to war was agreed. In the course of its military offensive the government all but destroyed UNITA’s conventional military capability, forcing it to revert to guerrilla tactics.