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Extra info for Plant Cold Hardiness (Cabi)
N. (1997) Observations of ice nucleation and propagation in plants using infrared thermography. Plant Physiology 113, 327–334. M. P. (2002) The use of hydrophobic particle films as a barrier to extrinsic ice nucleation in plants. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 127, 358–364. A. G. (2006) Sorghum can compensate for chilling-induced grain loss. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 192, 445–451. Woodruff, D. (1992) ‘WHEATMAN’, a decision support system for wheat management in subtropical Australia.
Fuller et al. Fig. 4. Heads of wheat which supercooled and survived a −7°C field frost (left) despite observed freezing of a vegetative canopy of wheat (right). Fig. 5. IR images taken during freezing and thawing of wheat plants at ear emergence. Top left: during freezing, showing a single exothermic leaf freezing event (white leaf, centre of picture); top right: during freezing, showing a single exothermic ear freezing event (white ear, top right of picture); bottom left: defrosting plants, only material appearing hatched in the image is frozen, the remainder supercooled throughout the test; bottom right: photograph of plants for reference.
The hypodermis and vascular sclerenchyma remained deep supercooled to −22°C or lower (Fig. 3A and C). These freezing events altogether are represented by the large LTE in DTA profiles (Fig. 3B, trace a). NMR micro-images suggest that these tis- A Hpd sues employ deep supercooling as a mechanism of cold hardiness. g. Fig. 1I). This implies that Trachycarpus leaves may have mechanisms to remain supercooled in a stable manner and/or avoid ice nucleation. Adaxial Epd LTE Exotherm HTE F P VT Sp Sc Hpd Epd a b Abaxial -5 -10 -15 -20 Temperature (°C) C -18°C Cumulative % of frozen samples MesophyII cells remain unfrozen Adaxial side froze first 100 D Water 50 +Palm extracts 0 0 10 20 Days 30 -25 -22°C 40 Cumulative % of frozen samples -14°C B Most cells frozen 100 E 50 Control +Palm extracts 0 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 Temperature (°C) 0 Fig.