By Huckriede R.
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Extra resources for Molluskenfaunen mit limnischen und brakischen Elementen aus Jura, Serpulit und Wealden NW-Deutschlands und ihre paläogeographische Bedeutung
Outcrop of Upper Ordovician limestone and minor shale, central Tennessee; College of Wooster students. Paleogeography Sea levels were high during the Ordovician; in fact during the Tremadocian, marine transgressions worldwide were the greatest for which evidence is preserved in the rocks. During the Ordovician, the southern continents were collected into a single continent called Gondwana. Gondwana started the period in equatorial latitudes and, as the period progressed, drifted toward the South Pole.
Cambrian dating Archeocyathids from the Poleta formation in the Death Valley area The time range for the Cambrian has classically been thought to have been from about 570 Mya to about 500 Mya. The lower boundary of the Cambrian was traditionally set at the earliest appearance of trilobites and also unusual forms known as archeocyathids (literally 'ancient cup') that are thought to be the earliest sponges and also the first nonmicrobial reef builders. The end of the period was eventually set at a fairly definite faunal change now identified as an extinction event.
As with North America and Europe, Gondwana was largely covered with shallow seas during the Ordovician. Shallow clear waters over continental shelves encouraged the growth of organisms that deposit calcium carbonates in their shells and hard parts. The Panthalassic Ocean covered much of the northern hemisphere, and other minor oceans included Proto-Tethys, Paleo-Tethys, Khanty Ocean, which was closed off by the Late Ordovician, Iapetus Ocean, and the new Rheic Ocean. As the Ordovician progressed, we see evidence of glaciers on the land we now know as Africa and South America.