By Sadiq Ahmed
India s fast development considering 1980 is reworking it right into a sleek fiscal strength. Measured in nominal US funds, India s economic climate has risen from a low rank of fifty in 1979 to twelfth place in 2003. In income-to-purchasing strength parity, India ranked fourth on the earth in 2003, at the back of purely the us, China, and Japan. even though nonetheless categorised as a low-income kingdom when it comes to consistent with capita nominal US cash due to its large inhabitants, if current premiums of development proceed, India may still achieve low center source of revenue prestige via the tip of this decade. a result of closed nature of the Indian economic system till the Eighties India is still a small participant within the area of foreign alternate and funding flows. yet with the hot beginning up of the economic system and swift development within the export of products and prone, India is easily gaining power. The great surge within the export of prone considering the fact that 2001 is drawing overseas realization, inducing many IT-based international companies to maneuver to India. additionally, deepest capital flows together with overseas direct funding which have been at the beginning very constrained, are actually exhibiting dynamism. through the Seventies, the talk in India headquartered on tips on how to increase upon the ancient three percentage annual development price of the economic climate. Few could have expected that this "sleeping big" could get up to realize and maintain an ordinary progress expense of approximately 6 percentage every year for over 25 years. in truth, with 7.9 percentage progress in the course of 2002 05, there's expanding optimism concerning the economic climate attaining additional development. this example has fueled a truly full of life debate in India, totally on elements. the 1st matters the criteria underlying India s long term development and the opposite pertains to the sustainability of this development. This e-book reports the talk within the context of India s long term progress event, possibilities, and demanding situations and examines the criteria that helped to accomplish speedy monetary progress in past times 25 years. writer Sadiq Ahmed attracts on his fin
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46 POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR SUPPORTING GROWTH Whereas in phase II, the policy combination allowed India to accelerate growth while maintaining sound macroeconomic management. India’s experience verifies the well-known analytical conclusion that macroeconomic stability is necessary, but not sufficient, for rapid growth. POLICIES FOR INTERNAL BALANCE Although a coordinated approach to macroeconomic policies is necessary to reconcile growth targets with macroeconomic stability, it is customary in an open economy to attach primacy to monetary policy for price stability, to exchange rate for stability of the balance of payments, and to fiscal policy for growth.
3 Trend in Export Performance, 1950–2004 Exports of Goods & Non-factor Services as % of GDP 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 Year 1990 2000 X/GDP Sources: IMF 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005. 50 2004 POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR SUPPORTING GROWTH of growth. In the early years after independence, India’s fiscal stance was conservative. 2 Fiscal expansion started in the 1970s and surged in the 1980s. Since then, despite some efforts to curb the deficits, they have remained large. Thus, for more than 35 years India has maintained fairly large fiscal deficits, building up a huge domestic public debt and large interest payment obligations.
The policies were not 55 INDIA’S LONG-TERM GROWTH EXPERIENCE aimed at supporting private investment. Not surprisingly, they adversely affected private investment and growth. They, along with other regulatory restrictions, were an important reason for relatively low private investment and low factor productivity during this period. In the second phase, monetary policy was somewhat less tight than that in the first phase but remained within prudent limits, thereby keeping the inflation rate significantly below average rates for the world and for developing countries.