By Romain Jeantet, Thomas Croguennec, Pierre Schuck, G?rard Brule
This ebook is a resource of simple and complex wisdom in nutrition technology for college students or pros within the foodstuff technology region, however it can also be obtainable for individuals drawn to different facets relating uncooked fabric stabilisation and transformation in nutrition items. it's an up to date and translated model of the e-book "Science des aliments" released in 2006 through Lavoisier. “Science des aliments” is a basic and introductory meals technological know-how and expertise instruction manual, according to the authors’ Masters and PhD classes and learn reviews. The booklet is concise, pedagogical and informative and includes a variety of illustrations (approximately 500 unique figures and tables). In three volumes), it summarizes the most wisdom required for operating in meals industries as scientists, technical managers or certified operators. it is going to even be invaluable for the formation of scholars in meals technological know-how and biotechnologies (bachelor’s and master’s degree).
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Additional info for Handbook of Food Science and Technology 2: Food Process Engineering and Packaging
The relationship between the previous seven quantities can be summed up in the relationship Nu = f (Re, Pr) and the experimental data on a given geometry and flow type can be adjusted to an equation like: Nu = C Rem Prn where C, m and n are constants. Here are some examples of specific situations. 52] The characteristic length used for Nu and Re is the inner diameter (D) of the pipe. η is the dynamic viscosity in the turbulent core and ηw viscosity at η is close to 1 for gas, but may be significant for the wall: the ratio ηw liquids.
For example, consider the case of laminar flow in a cylindrical pipe. 26] These relationships apply as long as flow is laminar in the gap between the pipe wall and the cylindrical liquid element, even if the flow inside it is turbulent. 9 gives v and τ as a function of position x. 26], τ is maximum at the wall (x = ± R) and zero at x = 0. 9. 2. 1. Introduction to Reynolds’ experience geometric and physical similarity: The work of Osborne Reynolds, the English physicist (1842–1912), focused mainly on the study and characterization of liquid flow in cylindrical pipes.
Conversely, if hBL is large (freezing by immersion in brine or to a lesser extent forced air freezing), the limiting factor is the heat exchange within the product, and therefore the freezing time is proportional to e2. This is also the case if thickness e is large, or the thermal conductivity of the material λf is very low (fats in particular), and it is not advisable in this case in trying to improve the heat exchange on the surface. However, in most cases, both terms require consideration, and the freezing time is proportional to a second order polynomial function of e without a constant term.