Read e-book online Greek and Roman Siege Machinery 399 BC-AD 363 PDF

Read e-book online Greek and Roman Siege Machinery 399 BC-AD 363 PDF

By Duncan B Campbell

Siege equipment first seemed within the West throughout the Carthaginian invasion of Sicily within the late-5th century BC, within the kind of siege towers and battering rams. After a 50-year hiatus those guns of struggle re-appeared within the Macedonian armies of Philip II and Alexander the nice, a interval that observed the peak in their improvement within the old global. The adventure of war with either the Carthaginians through the later-3rd century BC, and Philip V of Macedon throughout the early-2nd century BC, ultimately caused the creation of the siege tower and the battering ram to the Roman arsenal. This identify strains the advance and use of those guns around the entire of this era.

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The FSO Academy in Oryol trains recruits for all these elements. ” Part of its role is to provide a final defense against any attempted coup by the military, MVD or FSB. More generally, its Special Communications & Information Service is not only responsible for the security and integrity of presidential communications, but also provides an alternative source of analysis of intelligence gathered by the other espionage agencies, notably the FSB, Foreign Intelligence Service (Sluzhba vneshnoe razvedky, SVR), and the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff (Glavnoe razvedyvatelnoe upravlenie, GRU).

The Vostok and Zapad units, which had largely stayed out of the political fray, were disbanded at the end of 2008, although the former had just fought in Georgia during Russia’s three-day invasion of that country. Meanwhile, the Kadyrovtsy have been equipped to regular OMON and VV standard, though their discipline is often questionable, and they have been accused of numerous human-rights abuses by international observers. Nonetheless, their ferocity has never been in doubt, and they have been successful in grinding away at the resolve and numbers of the remaining insurgents.

Soldiers from the Presidential Regiment perform security duties throughout the Kremlin and also in Red Square, as well as providing the ceremonial guards for the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the adjacent Alexander Gardens. There they stage a carefully choreographed changing of the guard every hour, bearing elderly SKS rifles whose length is more suited to formal guard drill. For ceremonial duties the parade company wear resplendent uniforms introduced in 2006, based in color and style upon those of the old tsarist Imperial Guard, complete with shakos reminiscent of the Napoleonic period.

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