By Kevin Kavanagh
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Additional resources for Fungi: Biology and Applications, 2nd Edition
Together, these comprise the proton motive force that is the driving force for ATP synthesis. 5 ATP, while residual energy is largely dissipated as metabolic heat. Since mitochondria are impermeable to NADH, this reduced coenzyme generated in the cytoplasm during glycolysis is ‘shuttled’ across the mitochondrial membrane using either the glycerophosphate shuttle (which uses NADH to reduce dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol 3-phosphate) or the malate shuttle (which uses NADH to reduce oxaloacetate to malate).
10). Some yeasts, including S. cerevisiae, exhibit alternative respiration characterized by insensitivity to cyanide but sensitivity to azide. 2 Nitrogen Metabolism Fungi assimilate simple nitrogenous sources for the biosynthesis of amino acids and proteins. For example, ammonium ions are readily utilized and can be directly assimilated into the amino acids glutamate and glutamine that serve as precursors for the biosynthesis of other amino acids. Proteins can also be utilized following release of extracellular protease enzymes.
These represent important yeast-derived flavour constituents in fermented beverages. 1 Physical Requirements for Growth Most yeast and fungal species thrive in warm, sugary, acidic and aerobic conditions. The temperature range for fungal growth is quite wide; but, generally speaking, most species grow very well around 25 ◦ C. Low-temperature psychrophilic fungi and high-temperature thermophilic fungi do, however, exist in nature. Fungal growth at various temperatures depends not only on the genetic background of the species, but also on other prevailing physical growth parameters and nutrient availability.