By Masamichi Kato M.D., Ph.D., Tsukasa Shigemitsu Dr. Eng. (auth.), Masamichi Kato M.D., Ph.D. (eds.)
In this e-book, the authors meant to concentration their attempt on describing (1) organic responses of human and animals, either in vivo and in vitro methodologies, to magnetic and/or electromagnetic box publicity, (2) features of potent fields, (3) hypotheses to give an explanation for attainable mechanisms of interplay among the fields and cells, and (4) brought about present in ELF and precipitated warmth in RF fields as key interplay mechanisms.
The readers may have the present-day accomplished wisdom approximately organic responses to electromagnetic box exposure.
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Additional resources for Electromagnetics in Biology
It has also been reported that wheat seeds sprout faster when seeds oriented parallel to geomagnetic ﬁeld south and north. In general, although many reports on the eﬀect of magnetic ﬁelds on the growth enhancement of plants have been published, the consistent results were lacking. It is necessary in further research to specify the special environmental conditions for understanding the mechanism of magnetic ﬁeld response in plants. 3 Anthropogenic electromagnetic ﬁelds As stated in the previous section, the natural electromagnetic ﬁelds originate from the properties of the earth and the process of atmospherics.
13, the shark is moving through the geomagnetic ﬁeld: the electric ﬁeld resulting from motion of the shark through the geomagnetic ﬁeld gives it a magnetic compass heading; this is active electro-orientation. For a ﬁsh swimming at velocity (v) through the horizontal geomagnetic ﬁeld component (Bh ), an electric gradient is induced by the vector product. 25 µV/cm. This electrical gradient passes through the ampullae of Lorenzini. 01 µV/cm, they can readily detect this ﬁeld. Thus, the aquatic animal might perceive an electric voltage induced by water current or by its own motion in the geomagnetic ﬁelds.
However, in addition to the naturally produced ELF electric and magnetic ﬁelds in our environment, the extensive use of electrical equipment operating at a power frequency of 50 or 60Hz also produces ELF electric and magnetic ﬁelds. 1. Representative Power Frequency Electric Field Values from Common Household Electrical Appliances (Miller 1974) Electric ﬁelds (60Hz) measured 30cm from various electrical appliances, V/m Iacandescent light bulb 2 Toaster 40 Electric range 4 Phonograph 40 Clock 15 Hand Mixer 50 Vacuum Cleaner 16 Iron 60 Cofee pot 30 Refrigerator 60 Color TV 30 Stereo 90 Hair Dryer 40 Broiler 130 Vaporizer 40 Electric Blanket 250 magnetic ﬁelds are both ubiquitous and stronger, by many magnitudes, than those of natural origin.