By Hans van Goudoever; Stefano Guandalini; Ronald E Kleinman
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28 Oliver MH, Hawkins P, Harding JE: Periconceptional undernutrition alters growth trajectory, endocrine and metabolic responses to fasting in late gestation fetal sheep. Pediatr Res 2005;57:591–598. 29 Todd SE, Oliver MH, Jaquiery AL, et al: Periconceptional undernutrition of ewes impairs glucose tolerance in their adult offspring. Pediatr Res 2009;65:409–413. 16 van Goudoever H, Guandalini S, Kleinman RE (eds): Early Nutrition: Impact on Short- and Long-Term Health. , Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel, © 2011 Dietary Lipid Quality and Long-Term Outcome Elizabeth M.
Unfortunately, knowledge on fetal nutrition, metabolism, and growth remains scarce, especially in humans [21–23]. From fetal studies, largely performed in sheep, we have come to learn since long that, for example, large amounts of amino acids are actively transported across the placenta towards the growing fetus. These rates well exceed those necessary for tissue deposition or growth [24, 25], and are used as additional fuel source as also demonstrated by large urea formation . These observations, for example, have now contributed to a higher targeted protein intake in premature infants .
Values are means ± standard error of 5–7 piglets/diet. 05. 22 Diet Lipid and Programming indicate that the desaturase pathways are active and likely require very low amounts of LA and ALA substrate. Because human milk has LA of 6% fatty acids or higher, it seems likely that under practical circumstances; a dietary source of DHA is important for the developing brain. 3% energy) achieve high amounts of DHA in the brain. The importance of high amounts of EPA and the ARA/EPA balance in the liver, heart and potentially other organs still needs to be understood.