Download PDF by Ian Shaw: Dictionary of Archaeology

Download PDF by Ian Shaw: Dictionary of Archaeology

By Ian Shaw

This dictionary offers these learning or operating in archaeology with a whole connection with the sphere.

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This series of articles also provides a unique account of the ebb and flow of research in West Africa over the last 25 years. J. ’, BIFAN 21/A (1959), 427–38; M. L. Carter and C. B. A. T. Grove: ‘Environmental and climatic implications of late Quaternary lake-level fluctuations in Africa’, Nature 261 (1976), 385–90; L. Pastouret, H. Chamley, G. C. Duplessy and J. Thiede: ‘Late Quaternary climatic changes in Western Tropical Africa deducted from deep- sea sedimentation off the Niger delta’, Oceanologica Acta 1 (1978), 217–32; D.

Afarensis, but are now recognized as a separate species ‘Australopithecus bahrelghazali’. Also in northern Chad, other hominid remains, with fauna but without artefacts, were discovered by F. and Y. Coppnes in 1961 at Angamma; at first themselves attributed to Australopithecus, they are now regarded as nearer to HOMO ERECTUS and would thus be comparable with those found at TERNIFINE in Algeria, in an Acheulean context. ACHEULEAN sites are frequent in the region and (as at El-Beyyed in Mauritania) they are often associated with old lake deposits, suggesting that occupation at that time also took place during climatically favourable episodes, although so far there is only one absolute age determination (from Lagreich in Mali) where two burnt handaxes have a TL date of 282,000 ± 56,000 BP.

5. From stone to metal. The sequence of technological stages in the Near East, whereby the working of native copper preceded copper smelting and was succeeded by iron smelting, has yet to be demonstrated in West Africa. A careful reexamination of the data from the AGADEZ region has shown no solid evidence for copper working there prior to 3000 BP, and the industry which was established between 2800 and 2040 BP produced a relatively small number of artefacts. The same is true of Akjoujt in Mauritania, although it has been estimated that 40 metric tons of malachite ore may have been mined at that site during the period of its existence between 2776 and 2350 BP.

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