By Murat O. Balaban, Giovanna Ferrentino
Dense section carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal procedure for nutrients and pharmaceutical processing which may verify secure items with minimum nutrient loss and higher preserved caliber attributes. Its program is sort of assorted than, for instance, supercritical extraction with CO 2 the place the common solubility of fabrics in CO 2 is within the order of one% and accordingly calls for huge volumes of CO 2. by contrast, processing with DPCD calls for less CO 2 (between five to eight% CO 2 through weight) and the pressures used are no less than one order of importance under these in most cases utilized in extremely excessive strain (UHP) processing. there is not any seen temperature bring up because of pressurization, and average approach temperatures are round 40°C.
DPCD quickly reduces the pH of liquid meals and since oxygen is faraway from the surroundings, and as the temperature isn't excessive in the course of the brief procedure time (typically approximately 5 mins in non-stop systems), food, antioxidant task, and supplementations are far better preserved than with thermal remedies. In pharmaceutical purposes, DPCD enables the construction of micronized powders of managed particle dimension and distribution. even though the capital and working expenses are greater than that of thermal remedies, they're much below different non-thermal expertise operations.
This publication is the 1st to compile the numerous volume of study into DPCD and spotlight its effectiveness opposed to microorganisms and enzymes in addition to its capability in particle engineering. it's directed at meals and pharmaceutical scientists and technologists operating with DPCD and different conventional or non-thermal applied sciences that could in all likelihood be utilized in conjunction with DPCD. it is going to even be of curiosity to packaging experts and regulatory agencies.
Chapter 1 advent to Dense part Carbon Dioxide expertise (pages 1–4): Giovanna Ferrentino and Murat O. Balaban
Chapter 2 Thermodynamics of recommendations of CO2 with results of strain and Temperature (pages 5–35): Sara Spilimbergo and Ireneo Kikic
Chapter three Experimental dimension of Carbon Dioxide Solubility (pages 37–66): Giovanna Ferrentino, Thelma Calix, Massimo Poletto, Giovanna Ferrari and Murat O. Balaban
Chapter four results of Dense part Carbon Dioxide on Vegetative Cells (pages 67–97): Osman Erkmen
Chapter five results of Dense section Carbon Dioxide on Bacterial and Fungal Spores (pages 99–112): Patricia Ballestra
Chapter 6 results of DPCD on Enzymes (pages 113–134): Murat O. Balaban
Chapter 7 The Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation by means of Carbon Dioxide less than excessive strain (pages 135–155): Maria G. Corradini and Micha Peleg
Chapter eight purposes of DPCD to Juices and different drinks (pages 157–175): Murat O. Balaban and Xiaojun Liao
Chapter nine Use of Dense part Carbon Dioxide in Dairy Processing (pages 177–198): Giovanna Ferrentino and Giovanna Ferrari
Chapter 10 Particle Engineering through Dense gasoline applied sciences utilized to prescribed drugs (pages 199–226): Neil R. Foster, Raffaella Mammucari, Luu Thai Danh and Wen Hui Teoh
Chapter eleven commercial functions utilizing Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for meals (pages 227–238): James T. C. Yuan and John S. Novak
Chapter 12 Outlook and Unresolved concerns (pages 239–264): Luc Van Ginneken, Linsey Garcia?Gonzalez, Kathy Elst and Frank Devlieghere
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Extra info for Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: Food and Pharmaceutical Applications
For that reason, different mixing rules have been proposed for the a-parameter, involving essentially a concentration dependence of the kij (Adachi and Sugie 1986; Panagiotopoulos and Reid 1986). Since many mixtures of interest in the chemical industry exhibit much greater degrees of non-ideality, and have been traditionally described by activity coefficient (Gibbs energy) models, Huron and Vidal (1979) suggested a method to use excess Gibbs energy models to represent the mixing rule for the a-parameter of the equation of state.
Most of the compounds of interest as solutes in the supercritical fluids exhibit sublimation pressures of the order of 10−14 bar: these data cannot be determined experimentally and are estimated using empirical correlations. In the correlation of solubility data this problem can be solved empirically by considering the pure-component parameters as fitting parameters. Better results are obviously obtained (Alessi et al. 1997), but the physical significance is often missed. Some of these ambiguities can be partially solved using a simple approach (Garnier et al.
Kikic et al. (1991) used the UNIFAC equation using also for the short-range contribution the DH theory combined with the McMillan–Mayer solution theory as described by Cardoso and O’Connell (1987). More recently a new segment-based NRTL was proposed by Chen (Chen et al. 2001; Chen and Song, 2005) in order to describe systems also containing large molecules. Using perturbation theory, EOS models were developed to describe electrolyte solution properties (Jin and Donohue 1988a, b; Furst and Renon 1993; Wu and Prausnitz 1998).