By Rob Curley
Starting with definitions of such easy phrases as cryptanalysis, encryption, and decryption, this advent from the Intelligence and Counterintelligence sequence emphasizes the purpose that cryptography is now part of daily enterprise, no longer restricted to espionage and the army. The narrative explains how a variety of ciphers are developed, from the easiest to the main complicated, then covers simple strategies and kinds of cryptanalysis. After a brief evaluate of cryptology via background, the survey concludes with a glance on the improvement of contemporary digital cryptology. evidence and ideas are good geared up and obviously provided, yet resources aren't stated. Charts, images, and sidebars upload visible sort, yet this learn is most fitted for the intense pupil, now not the informal browser. again subject features a thesaurus, a bibliography, and an index. Grades 9-12. --Linda Perkins
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Additional resources for Cryptography: Cracking Codes (Intelligence and Counterintelligence)
Block and stream ciphers In general, cipher systems transform fixed-size pieces of plaintext into ciphertext. In older manual systems these pieces were usually single letters or characters—or occasionally, as in the Playfair cipher, digraphs, since this was as large a unit as could feasibly be encrypted and decrypted by hand. Systems that operated on trigrams or larger groups of letters were proposed and understood to be potentially more secure, but they were never implemented because of the difficulty in manual encryption and decryption.
There are two main approaches that have been employed with substitution ciphers to lessen the extent to which structure in the plaintext—primarily single-letter frequencies—survives in the ciphertext. , digraphs and trigraphs. The other is to use several cipher alphabets. When this approach of polyalphabetic substitution is carried to its limit, it results in onetime keys, or pads. Playfair Ciphers In cryptosystems for manually encrypting units of plaintext made up of more than a single letter, only digraphs were ever used.
Systems that operated on trigrams or larger groups of letters were proposed and understood to be potentially more secure, but they were never implemented because of the difficulty in manual encryption and decryption. In modern single-key cryptography the units of information are often as large as 64 bits, or about 131/2 alphabetic characters, whereas two-key cryptography based on the RSA 39 Cryptography: Cracking Codes algorithm appears to have settled on 1,024 to 2,048 bits, or between roughly 310 and 620 alphabetic characters, as the unit of encryption.