By Randall Morck, Lucian Bebchuk, Luigi Zingales, Paul Mahoney, Edward Rock, Michael Wachter, Reinier Kraakman, et al
Average monetary versions imagine that many small traders personal businesses. this can be so in such a lot huge U.S. businesses, yet filthy rich members or households often carry controlling blocks in smaller U.S. agencies and in all companies in so much different nations. Given this, the shortcoming of theoretical and empirical paintings on tightly held enterprises is surprising.What company governance difficulties come up in tightly held organisations? How do those range from company governance difficulties in greatly held organisations? How do keep watch over blocks come up and the way are they maintained? How does centred possession impact fiscal development? How should still we control tightly held firms?Drawing jointly major students from legislation, economics, and finance, this quantity examines the industrial and criminal problems with targeted possession and their influence on a transferring worldwide economic climate.
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Additional resources for Concentrated Corporate Ownership (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report)
As independent variables, we use the logarithm of the age of the firm at the time of the investment and the logarithm of the ordinal rank of the investment round. We also employ dummy variables denoting investments by corporate and independent venture capital funds, 11. As discussed at length in Lerner (l994), the pre-money valuation is a more appropriate dependent variable than the post-money valuation because it is independent of the amount invested in the firm during the current financing round.
More specifically, a set of papers has examined the structure of financial institutions and investment performance. Among these are studies of the performance of initial public offerings underwritten by investment banks that are and are not affiliated with commercial banks (Kroszner and Rajan 1994), the performance of loans underwritten by savings-and-loan institutions structured as mutual and stock organizations (Cordell, MacDonald, and Wohar 1993), and the effect of mutual fund performance on investment choices and returns (Chevalier and Ellison 1997).
As discussed at length in Lerner (l994), the pre-money valuation is a more appropriate dependent variable than the post-money valuation because it is independent of the amount invested in the firm during the current financing round. As Gompers (1995) discusscs, the amount invested may vary with many considerations, including the fund-raising environment. 5 Pre-Money Valuation at the Time of Financing A. 7 B. p-Value, Tests of Equality of Pre-Money Valuations Corporate VC vs. all others Independent VC vs.