By Gonul Kaletunc, Kenneth J. Breslauer
Characterization of Cereals and Flours is a cutting-edge reference that information the newest advances to signify the consequences of producing techniques and garage stipulations at the thermal, mechanical, and structural homes of cereal flours and their items - studying the effect of moisture absorption, garage temperature, baking, and extrusion processing on flour and cereal product texture, shelf-life, and caliber. The ebook discusses the effect of additions on pre- and postprocessed foodstuff biopolymers; the improvement of databases and building of country diagrams to demonstrate the country and serve as of cereal flours sooner than, in the course of, and after construction; and the present ideas in picture research, mild and electron microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy used to research the microstructure of cereal items. It additionally discusses the equipment used to optimize processing parameters and formulations to provide end-products with fascinating sensory and textural houses; the shelf lifetime of cereal items; and the relationships among the sensory and actual features of cereal foods.
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Extra info for Characterization of cereals and flours : properties, analysis, and applications
In addition, sugars, such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and xylose, reduce the Tg of nonextruded amylopectin (32, 86, 87) observed a progressive reduction in the stress–strain functions of extruded wheat starch during bending tests with increasing levels of added glucose. B. Effect of Extrusion Processing Conditions Cereal ﬂours are the structure-forming materials in extruded products, comprising a dispersed protein phase, usually in a ﬁbrous form aligned with the extrusion direction, in a continuous starch phase.
Levine and Slade (23) and Noel et al. (18) noted that Tg is relevant to food processing operations and Figure 9 Relationship between the sensory attribute of crispness and Tg for corn ﬂour extrudates. (From Ref. ) Copyright 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. correlates well with quality attributes. Kaletunc¸ and Breslauer (10) reported the existence of a relationship between Tg and end-product attributes for corn ﬂour extrudates. More speciﬁcally, the Tg values of corn ﬂour extrudates exhibited trends related to sensory attributes (crispness and denseness) evaluated using quantitative descriptive analysis.
VI. CONCLUSION Calorimetry can be successfully applied to characterize the impact of processing and storage conditions on the stability and shelf life of extruded products. The observation that processing-induced fragmentation is reﬂected in both the apparent molecular weight distribution and the temperature of the glass transition emphasizes the utility of Tg as a means of assessing the extent of fragmentation in extruded cereal ﬂours. Moisture sorption isotherms can be used in conjunction with the glass curves of extruded products to deﬁne storage conditions that maintain the stability and enhance the shelf life of the product.