By Michael Nosonovsky, Pradeep K. Rohatgi
Biomimetics in fabrics Science presents a accomplished theoretical and functional evaluation of biomimetic fabrics with self-healing, self-lubricating and self-cleaning homes. those 3 issues are heavily similar and represent swiftly constructing parts of research. the sphere of self-healing fabrics calls for a brand new conceptual realizing of this biomimetic expertise, that is not like conventional engineering approaches corresponding to put on and fatigue. Biomimetics in fabrics Science is the 1st monograph to be dedicated to those fabrics. a brand new theoretical framework for those procedures is gifted in keeping with the concept that of multi-scale constitution of entropy and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, including an in depth assessment of the on hand expertise. The latter comprises experimental, modeling, and simulation effects received on self-healing/lubricating/cleaning fabrics seeing that their emergence some time past decade.
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Additional info for Biomimetics in Materials Science: Self-Healing, Self-Lubricating, and Self-Cleaning Materials
2006; Takahashi et al. 2007). Self-healing ceramic materials often use oxidative reactions, because the volume of oxide exceeds the volume of the original material, and therefore, products of these reactions, due to their higher volume, can be used to fill small cracks (Zwaag 2009). Self-healing nanocomposites constitute another area of research. The field of self-healing metals and metal composites has received serious attention only in the last 10 years (Lumley 2007; Wang et al. 2007; Manuel 2009, 2007; Manuel et al.
On the other hand, the pressure, temperature, and chemical potential are called intensive properties, since they are not dependent on the mass of the system or the amount of substance. ” In many cases, it is more convenient to present the state of a thermodynamic system as a function of pressure and temperature. For that, the thermodynamic potentials called Helmholtz free energy AðV; T; NÞ ¼ U À TS and Gibbs free energy GðP; T; NÞ ¼ U þ PV À TS can be used instead of the internal energy. 6) Note that the transformation from U(S, V, N) to AðV; T; NÞ and to GðP; T; NÞ for a thermodynamic system is analogous to the transition from strain energy to the stress (or “complimentary”) energy of a mechanical system.
In the case of functional surfaces, hierarchical organization is manifested in the presence of structures with different characteristic length scales. 6 Biomimetics 21 Fig. 26. The curve is built by an iterative procedure so that at every step its length l is increased by the factor of 4/3. If the curve is zoomed by three times, it length is increased by 4 ¼ 3D times several undesirable factors having different characteristic length scales. Hierarchical structures play important roles in both the lotus effect and the gecko effect.