By Garry T. Cole
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Additional resources for Biology of Conidial Fungi. Volume 2
Mislivec stomach, vomiting) were found to be too severe to permit its continued use (Ciegler, 1977). Patulin has subsequently been shown to be toxic to mice, rats, poultry, and rabbits, the toxicoses involving the kidney, liver, lungs, brain, and spleen (Ciegler, 1977; Scott, 1977). There is one report of patulin being a carcinogen (Dickens and Jones, 1965). Ciegler (1977) and Scott (1977) have reported in detail on patulin toxicity. The importance of this compound as a mycotoxin is still unclear.
For instance, Christensen et al. (1968) screened 943 molds isolated from grains and peanuts for animal toxicity. Of the 439 isolates found to be toxic, no fewer than 413 (94%) were from 18 anamorph-genera. Joffe (1978) found toxic isolates in 16 anamorph-genera. Butler and Crisan (1977), in their excellently illustrated key to toxic fungi, include 42 Philip B. Mislivec more than 50 anamorph-genera with at least some history of toxicogenicity. Conidial fungi are thus seen to be the most important group causing potential or actual hazards to human and animal health through mycotoxin contamination of foods.
The onset of the disease is insidious; there are no serological or successful cultural procedures available. The diagnosis is often not made until autopsy. The fungus grows radially from the point of inoculation within pulmonary tissue. It is characterized by septate, dichotomously branching hyphal units. These invade vessels and are spread to other organs as septic emboli. Aspergillus fumigatus is most frequently involved. Aspergilli also invade the lacerated cornea of the eye, causing mycotic keratitis which is usually manifested as a corneal ulcer.