Download PDF by J. C. Briggs: Biogeography and plate tectonics

Download PDF by J. C. Briggs: Biogeography and plate tectonics

By J. C. Briggs

One must examine just a small part of the big literature on plate tectonics released within the final 15 years to achieve that there are lots of ameliorations among some of the reconstructions which have been offered. It turns into visible that, even supposing there's a basic contract in regards to the presence of an meeting of continents (a Pangaea) within the early Mesozoic, there's massive war of words between earth scientists as to the configurement of the meeting and the way and timing of the following dispersal. whereas the revolution in geophysics was once occurring, systematic paintings in paleontology and neontology was once being performed. This e-book is an try to comprise the organic proof into the speculation of plate tectonics. the writer lines the altering relationships one of the numerous biogeographic areas and demonstrates how such adjustments may possibly frequently be correlated with the sluggish geographic alteration of the earth's floor. He analyses contemporary information regarding the distribution of frequent teams of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates, invertebrates and vegetation, and discusses the biogeographical results of the circulate of oceanic plates. it's quite vital to acquire liable information regarding yes severe occasions within the heritage of continental relationships. we have to understand whilst the terrestrial elements of the earth have been damaged aside and after they have been joined jointly. the current research makes it transparent that we won't rely totally on facts from plate tectonics nor will in basic terms organic proof suffice. This e-book therefore offers a lot of curiosity to systematists engaged on modern teams of vegetation and animals, paleontologists, evolutionary biologists, and professors educating classes in biogeography.

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Extra info for Biogeography and plate tectonics

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The maps of Barron et al. (1981) show Europe and North America continuously separated beginning 160 Ma. However, in his review of plate movements and their relationship to biogeographic changes, Hallam (198 I ) referred to a persistent land connection between Greenland and Europe that lasted until the end of the Eocene (38 Ma). What did actually happen? Can the biological data help to resolve this question? In regard to the marine fauna of the North Atlantic, its obvious impoverishment (Briggs, 1970) compared to that of the North Pacific, has puzzled biologists for a long time.

Later, in the early Cenozoic, it is likely that three genera (Eumeces, Scincellu, Neoseps) of the lizard family Scincidae reached North America from Asia. The family Crotalidae, the pit vipers, probably originated in southeast Asia D1nohippus"A"(E l-ig. 3. Di\persal of various Equus species from their center of origin in North America. After Bennett (I wo). 25 (Rabb a n d Marx, 1973). Two genera dispersed across the Bering Land Bridge, probably in the Miocene, and evolved into the modern rattlesnakes, water moccasin, copperhead, fer-de-lance, a n d bushmaster (Brattstrom, 1964).

P . Woodring, Caribbean Land and Sea Through [he Ages, 1954 ANTILLES Biologists and geologists have attempted to account for the presence of the Antillean terrestrial and freshwater biota by proposing three different methods of access: (1) a land bridge (or bridges) from the mainland to the islands; (2) movement of the islands themselves, with at least a partially intact biota, eastward from a position adjacent to the mainland; and (3) fortuitous overseas transport over a long period of time. The land bridge hypothesis apparently began with Spencer (1 895) who envisioned a gigantic Antillean continent that was connected to the mainland in the Pliocene and Pleistocene.

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