# Masud Chaichian, Hugo Perez Rojas, Anca Tureanu's Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks PDF

By Masud Chaichian, Hugo Perez Rojas, Anca Tureanu

"Basic recommendations in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the result of the authors' lengthy and sundry instructing event in several international locations and for various audiences, and provides an obtainable and eminently readable creation to all of the major rules of recent physics. The book’s clean method, utilizing a unique mix of historic and conceptual viewpoints, makes it perfect complementary studying to extra general textbooks. the 1st 5 chapters are dedicated to classical physics, from planetary movement to big relativity, consistently preserving in brain its relevance to questions of up to date curiosity. the following six chapters deal frequently with more recent advancements in physics, from quantum thought and common relativity to grand unified theories, and the publication concludes via discussing the function of physics in residing platforms. A uncomplicated grounding in arithmetic is needed of the reader, yet technicalities are shunned so far as attainable; hence complicated calculations are passed over as long as the fundamental rules stay transparent. The ebook is addressed to undergraduate and graduate scholars in physics and also will be preferred by way of many pro physicists. it's going to likewise be of curiosity to scholars, researchers and academics of alternative common sciences, in addition to to engineers, high-school lecturers and the curious common reader, who will come to appreciate what physics is set and the way it describes the various phenomena of Nature. not just will readers of this e-book study a lot approximately physics, they are going to additionally learn how to love it.

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**Sample text**

25). Fig. 24 A pendulum that oscillates in a plane has only one degree of freedom: the angle Â . 36 1 Gravitation and Newton’s Laws Fig. 25 Two particles joined by a rigid bar have five degrees of freedom: the three directions of space in which their centre of mass can move, and the two angles determining the positions of the particles with respect to it. This is almost the case for diatomic molecules, although for them the “bar” is not completely rigid, and can oscillate longitudinally. Therefore, diatomic molecules have six degrees of freedom.

The process is reiterated at successive points so that the resulting trajectory is a curve. This is due to the action at each instant of the force F that causes the planet to “fall” continuously toward the Sun. As another example, assume that we let a stone fall freely, starting from a rest position: its initial velocity is zero, but because of the Earth’s gravitational attraction, it acquires a momentum p that increases proportionally with time, and points in the same direction as the force exerted by the Earth on the stone.

Finally, if it is put on a stretched newspaper, held with both hands, this will probably break and the brick will fall to the floor. The newspaper would not be able to react with a force equal and opposite to the weight of the brick, and would therefore break. This would not occur if instead of the brick we placed a lighter body on the newspaper (for example, a coin). We see from these examples that, in general, the action produces some deformation of the body on which it acts, forcing it to give back an equal and opposite reaction, and that there exists a limiting value for the action force, when the body breaks.