By Edwin N. Frankel
The sphere of antioxidants has elevated over the last six a long time right into a large choice of multidisciplinary parts that impact meals and health. the writer conveys the complexity of antioxidant chemistry via supplying an appreciation of some of the phenomena that have an effect on oxidation and its inhibition in meals and organic systems. by means of emphasizing mechanistic features of antioxidants and lipid oxidation, he additionally makes an attempt to split evidence from fiction by means of settling on the components desiring additional examine to enhance the knowledge of complicated antioxidant results and to stimulate greater designed technique and nutritional experiences for the future. Beginning with an advent to antioxidants and its chemistry, chapters discover antioxidant motion in multiphase platforms, protocols for meals and organic platforms, meals antioxidants, antioxidants in biology and browing and glycation rection construction in biology.
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Additional info for Antioxidants in food and biology: Facts and fiction
Homosynergism This arises between two antioxidants having the same mechanism. An effective synergistic combination is achieved with a mixture of chain-breaking antioxidants of different relative reducing capacity. 6) in lipid systems has long been known, and has received much attention in biological systems. Considerable evidence has been obtained in support of a mechanism involving the reduction of α-tocopheroxyl radicals (α-TO·) by ascorbic acid to regenerate α-tocopherol. 34 ANTIOXIDANTS IN FOOD AND BIOLOGY α-TOH + LOO· ——➤ α-TO· + LOOH (21) AscH + α-TO· ——➤ α-TOH + Asc (22) The one-electron reduction potential (Eo/mV) of α-tocopherol is 500 and that of vitamin C is 282.
Lecithin may also behave by its emulsifying properties to improve the contact between the polar phenolic antioxidants and the less polar lipid substrate. 2. Heterosynergism This arises between two antioxidants having different mechanisms. 5). Thus, vegetable oils containing varying concentrations of α-, γand δ-tocopherol mixtures are effectively stabilized by added citric acid. In these combinations, synergism may also arise from the protective effect of citric acid against the metal catalysed oxidation of the tocopherol mixtures.
Frankel, EN, Kanner, J, German, JB, Parks, E and Kinsella, JE (1993) Inhibition of in vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein with phenolic substances in red wine. The Lancet, 341, 454–457. 18 ANTIOXIDANTS IN FOOD AND BIOLOGY German, JB and Walzem, RL (2000) The health benefits of wine. Ann. Rev. , 20, 561– 593. Halliwell, B and Gutteridge, JMC (1990) Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: An overview. Meth. , 186 (Part B), 1–85. Higdon, JV and Frei, B (2002) Vitamin C: An introduction.