By John F. Watts
Greatly revised and up-to-date with extra fabric incorporated in latest chapters and new fabric on perspective resolved XPS, floor engineering and complimentary methods.
* comprises an obtainable creation to the major spectroscopic strategies in floor analysis.
* offers descriptions of contemporary tools and techniques.
* incorporates a distinct thesaurus of key floor research phrases.
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Extra info for An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES
Thus, a number of samples may be loaded into the spectrometer without the risk of Xrays damaging samples while they await analysis. Similarly, multipoint analysis can be performed on the same delicate sample. 4. This shows the XPS spectrum of Ag 3d electrons acquired using monochromatic and non-monochromatic X-rays. The analyser was set to the same conditions for each spectrum. There is a clear difference in the peak width, the background is higher using the non-monochromatic X-rays and X-ray satellites are clearly visible when the non-monochromatic source is used.
6 Detectors In most electron spectrometers it is necessary to count the individual electrons arriving at the detector. To achieve this, electron multipliers are used. Although there are many types of electron multiplier, only two types are commonly used in electron spectrometers: channel electron multipliers (channeltrons) and channel plates. 1 Channel electron multipliers These consist of a spiral-shaped glass tube with a conical collector at one end and a metal anode at the other. 15 Schematic diagram showing (a) the operation of a channel electron multiplier, and (b) the output characteristics having more than some threshold kinetic energy, will emit many secondary electrons.
The tip is heated to about 1800 K in a large electrostatic field. The combination of the high temperature and the field causes electrons to be emitted. The vacuum requirements for this type of gun are much less stringent than is the case for the cold field emitter, although it is usual to provide additional pumping at the source when this type of emitter is used. 3 compares the important characteristics of the types of emitter considered here. 6 eV 1800 <1%