By Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun
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Additional info for Alkali-activated cements and concretes
Therefore, viscosity can reflect the difference in silicate anions to a great extent, but cannot be used to determine these silicate anions (Christophlienk 1985). 11. 3 Structure of liquid sodium silicate Early studies using cryoscopic, ultra centrifuging, light scattering, ultrafiltration, conductivity, molybdate and TMS methods provided detailed information on mean molecular weights, particle size and degree of condensation of silicate anions in a silicate solution. However, more structural information with respect to the anionic structure of silicate solutions has become available only with the development and refinement of methods such as 29 Si-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, paper chromatography, TMS, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, over the last twenty years.
The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, Canada, banned the use of steel slag in asphalt concrete on provincial highways in 1993 because of the soundness problem. 5 Cementing properties of steel slag The presence of C3 S, C2 S, C4 AF and C2 F contributes to the cementitious property of steel furnace slag. 8 summarizes the relationship between basicity, main mineral phase and hydraulic reactivity of steel slag. It can be seen that the reactivity of steel slag increases with its basicity. However, free-CaO content also increases with the increase of the basicity of steel slag.
Alkali-activated steel slag–blast furnace slag cement can show very high strength and corrosion resistance (Petropavlovsky 1987, Bin et al. 1989, 1992, Shi 1999), which is discussed in detail in Chapter 10. Ladle slag consists mainly of -C2 S and does not display obvious cementitious properties under normal hydration condition. However, it shows significant cementing properties under the activation of alkalis. Its cementitious property increases with the fineness of the slag (Shi 2002). 1 Definition of pozzolans The term “pozzolan” comes from the US simplification of “pozzolana” which derived from the location “Pozzuoli, Italy”.