By Kerstin Skog, Jan Alexander
It truly is referred to now that heating carbohydrate-rich meals could cause the formation of acrylamide and additional study is probably going to teach that different damaging compounds are shaped in the course of the warmth therapy of meals. as a result assessing the hazards posed to shoppers via acrylamide and different in all probability carcinogenic and genotoxic compounds resembling heterocyclic amines and PhIP is a concern for the nutrition undefined. This new ebook offers the most recent learn within the sector, discussing the mechanisms of formation of dangerous compounds in the course of warmth remedy, the research of dangerous compounds, how to examine the dangers they pose and novel easy methods to reduce their formation in foodstuff items.
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Additional info for Acrylamide and Other Hazardous Compounds in Heat-treated Foods
Prior to industrial usage, questions related to the regulatory approval, labeling, and safety will need to be addressed. Process management The thermal input and final moisture content are decisive factors in the formation of acrylamide. , 2004). e. hottest and driest zone), and increases in the bread crust with baking time and temperature, contributing up to 99% of the total acrylamide in the whole loaves. Thus, consistently lower concentrations of acrylamide are found in the bread crumb (Sadd and Hamlet, 2005).
The general reaction scheme for acrylamide formation shown in Fig. e. the nature of the carbonyl compound) and on conditions of temperature, water content and pH. , 2003). The effectiveness of different carbohydrate moieties in forming acrylamide has been investigated by a number of research groups. Zyzak et al. (2003) investigated the ability of different carbonyls to generate acrylamide in a potato snack model system and found that a variety of carbohydrate sources could generate acrylamide from asparagine, including glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, ribose, glyceraldehydes, glyoxal and decanal.
A similar carbonyl-assisted decarboxylation of sarcosine (N-methylglycine) was first reported by Rizzi (1970). The azomethine ylide can readily undergo irreversible 1,2-prototropic shift yielding the imines 1 and 2 (pathways IIa and IIb). Since the 1,2-prototropy is irreversible, the two imines cannot be interconverted. Imine 1 (a decarboxylated Schiff base) can hydrolyse to 3-aminopropanamide and yield acrylamide by the elimination of ammonia. Alternatively, tautomerism of imine 1 (which requires the -hydroxyl Fig.