By Johanna Laybourn-Parry BSc, MSc, PhD (auth.)
General Editor: Peter Calow, division of Zoology, college of Sheffield, England the most objective of this sequence can be to demonstrate and to provide an explanation for the best way organisms 'make a residing' in nature. on the middle of this - their func tional biology - is the way in which organisms gather after which utilize assets in metabolism, move, development, replica, and so forth. those procedures will shape the elemental framework of the entire books within the sequence. each one booklet will pay attention to a specific taxon (species, kinfolk, category or perhaps phylum) and may assemble info at the shape, body structure, ecology and evolutionary biology of the gang. the purpose might be not just to explain how organisms paintings, but in addition to contemplate why they've got come to paintings in that approach. via focusing on taxa that are popular, it truly is was hoping that the sequence won't merely illustrate the good fortune of choice, but additionally express the limitations imposed upon it by means of the physiological, morphological and developmental limita tions of the teams. one other very important function of the sequence should be its organismic orienta tion. every one e-book will emphasise the significance of sensible integra tion within the daily lives and the evolution of organisms. this is often the most important on account that, although it can be real that organisms might be regarded as collections of gene-determined characteristics, they however have interaction with their surroundings as built-in wholes and it's during this context that particular characteristics were subjected to normal choice and feature evolved.
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Additional resources for A Functional Biology of Free-Living Protozoa
Other environmental factors such as pH and oxygen availability probably also affect the energetics of feeding, but unfortunately the impact of these characteristics is poorly documented. Different species show variable responses to fluctuations in the concentration of their food supply. Feeding rate in bacterivore ciliates appears to be a function of food concentration at lower bacterial densities, but becomes independent of the concentration at high bacterial cell density. Harding (1937) was one of the first researchers to consider feeding rate and bacterial food supply in relation to growth How Protozoa Obtain Energy 61 and reproduction.
4), but its function is unclear. During the feeding process, food which is drawn into the cytostomalcytopharyngeal region is enclosed in food vacuoles. The food vacuole develops by the fusion of cytopharyngeal membrane and cytopharyngeal discoidal vesicles. The series of events following this process are outlined in Section 2 D. When Protozoa are feeding rapidly they produce large amounts of surface plasma membrane, which is utilised in the formation of food vacuoles. Studies on the rate of digestive or food vacuole formation suggest that the membrane of vacuoles equivalent to 50-150 per cent of the total cell surface is produced in 5-10 minutes in a species like Euplotes (Kloetzel, 1974).
Traction or suction-like processes may be practised by ciliates which feed on filamentous algae. Such species include Frontonia, Nassula and Chilodonella. A particularly elegant study of the process of ingestion and the structures facilitating ingestion, has been carried out by Tucker (1968) on Nassula. Like all members of the class Kinetofragminophorea, in which the carnivorous forms previously mentioned are also included, Nassula lacks compound oral ciliature. 8: The Cytopharyngeal Basket of Nassula.