Download PDF by Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.): A Dictionary of Earth Sciences

Download PDF by Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.): A Dictionary of Earth Sciences

By Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)

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They do this by a process that involves surface turbulence at a time when the waves or swell have become unstable and break. Usually this is because of their encountering very shallpw water, but it may also be due to their meeting with opposing currents or wind. This complete breakdown of waves or swell must not be confused with breaking seas or so-called white horses, in which there is only partial collapse, at sea, of wave crests. The breaker zone is characteristically wide off gently sloping coasts and relatively narrow off steeply shelving coasts.

The frontal area is often characterized by subsidiary waves or furrows. With the initial flooding of the tide, a surging inflow may develop and travel rapidly some kilometres upstream. Well-known bores occur in the Amazon, the Tsing Kiang River in China, the River Hugli in India, and the Bay of Fundy. The better known ones in England include those of the Severn, Trent, and Ouse. The large bore that travels up the Tsing Kiang River has a fast-moving abrupt front up to 4 metres in height, necessitating the prior removal of boats from the river.

Its mean latitudinal position oscillates, being further south in winter and further north in summer, with high-pressure cells occasionally drifting northeastwards from the main centre to form blocking anticyclones within the westerly circulation. azurite. See carbonate minerals. B backshore. The part of a beach that lies above the level of normal high spring tides. Only when exceptionally high spring tides occur, or severe storms take place, does this zone come under the influence of wave action.

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